Surgeons operating to remove malignant tumours often struggle to differentiate such tumours from surrounding healthy tissues. To ensure the complete removal of a tumour, surgeons also need to remove some of the surrounding healthy tissue, which of course isn’t desirable, especially in the brain.
A surgical electrode is a popular means to bisect (cut out) tissues. This makes use of a high-frequency electric current that is focussed into a highly localised ‘blade’ that effectively evaporates biological tissue as it comes into contact: water in the cells rapidly boils, proteins are precipitated and the membranes of the cells disintegrate forming a gaseous cloud of molecular ions of the major tissue components.
An innovative study published by team of researchers in Budapest, lead by Zoltán Takáts2, makes use of the fact that thermal evaporation of different tissues results in gaseous clouds with potentially different ion signatures. The team coupled a suction tube to a surgical electrode, and when cutting begins the tube draws the ions into an instrument called a mass spectrometer, something with which all CSI fans should be familiar. Using this process Takáts’ team found they could differentiate between healthy and malignant tissues, which provides a great basis for real-time tissue analysis under the knife, so to speak.